Environmental Factors: References

  1. Keller F, Persico AM. The neurobiological context of autism. Mol Neurobiol. 2003 Aug; 28(1):1-22. Review. PubMed PMID: 14514983.
  2. Herbert MR, Russo JP, Yang S, et al. Autism and environmental genomics. Neurotoxicology 2006; 27(5):671–84.
  3. Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med 2007; 357(3):266–81. Heaney RP. The Vitamin D requirement in health and disease. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2005; 97(1–2):13–9.
  4. Kalueff AV, Minasyan A, Keisala T, Kuuslahti M, Miettinen S, Tuohimaa P. The vitamin D neuroendocrine system as a target for novel neurotropic drugs. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2006; 5(3):363–71.
  5. Mostafa GA, Al-Ayadhi LY. Reduced serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in children with autism: relation to autoimmunity. J Neuroinflammation. 2012 Aug 17; 9:201.
  6. Cannell JJ. Autism and vitamin D. Med Hypotheses. 2008; 70(4):750-9.
  7. Boonstra A, Barrat FJ, Crain C, Heath VL, Savelkoul HF, O’Garra A: 1α, 25- Dihydroxyvitamin d3 has a direct effect on naive CD4 [+] T cells to enhance the development of Th2 cells. J Immunol 2001, 167:4974–4980.
  8. Eyles D, Brown J, Mackay-Sim A, McGrath J, Feron F. Vitamin D3 and brain development. Neuroscience 2003; 118(3):641–53.
  9. Piven J, Arndt S, Bailey J, Havercamp S, Andreasen NC, Palmer P. An MRI study of brain size in autism. Am J Psychiatry 1995; 152(8):1145–9.
  10. Ashwood P, Wills S, Van de Water J. The immune response in autism: a new frontier for autism research. J Leukoc Biol 2006; 80(1):1–15.
  11. Poskitt EM, Cole TJ, Lawson DE. Diet, sunlight, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D in healthy children and adults. Br Med J 1979; 1(6158):221–3.
  12. Epstein S, Schneider AE. Drug and hormone effects on vitamin D metabolism. In: Feldman D, Pike JW, Glorieux FH, editors. Vitamin D. San Diego: Elsevier; 2005.
  13. Gillberg C, Schaumann H, Gillberg IC. Autism in immigrants: children born in Sweden to mothers born in Uganda. J Intellect Disabil Res 1995; 39(Pt 2):141–4.
  14. Bodnar LM, Simhan HN, Powers RW, Frank MP, Cooperstein E, Roberts JM. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in black and white pregnant women residing in the northern United States and their neonates. J Nutr 2007; 137(2):447–52.
  15. Cannell JJ, Hollis B, Heaney RP. Diagnosis and treatment of vitamin D deficiency Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2008 Jan; 9(1):107-18.
  16. Hayashi E. Seasonal changes in sleep and behavioral problems in a pubescent case with autism. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2001; 55(3):223–4.
  17. Surén P, Roth C, Bresnahan M, Haugen M, Hornig M, Hirtz D, Lie KK, Lipkin WI, Magnus P, Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Schjølberg S, Davey Smith G, Øyen AS, Susser E, Stoltenberg C. Association between maternal use of folic acid supplements and risk of autism spectrum disorders in children. JAMA. 2013 Feb 13; 309(6):570-7. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.155925. PubMed PMID: 23403681; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3908544.
  18. .Kirke PN, Molloy AM, Daly LE, Burke H, Weir DG, Scott JM. Maternal plasma folate and vitamin B12 are independent risk factors for neural tube defects. Q J Med. 1993 Nov; 86(11):703-8. PubMed PMID: 8265769.
  19. James SJ, Melnyk S, Jernigan S, Pavliv O, Trusty T, Lehman S, Seidel L, Gaylor DW, Cleves MA. A functional polymorphism in the reduced folate carrier gene and DNA hypomethylation in mothers of children with autism. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2010 Sep; 153 B(6):1209-20.
  20. King JC. Maternal obesity, metabolism, and pregnancy outcomes. Annu Rev Nutr 2006; 26: 271-91.
  21. Sullivan EL, Grayson B, Takahashi D, Robertson N, Maier A, Bethea CL, et al. Chronic consumption of a high-fat diet during pregnancy causes perturbations in the serotonergic system and increased anxiety-like behavior in nonhuman primate offspring. J Neurosci 2010; 30: 3826-30.
  22. Bilbo SD, Tsang V. Enduring consequences of maternal obesity for brain inflammation and behavior of offspring. FASEB J 2010; 24: 2104-15.
  23. Sullivan EL, Nousen EK, Chamlou KA. Maternal high fat diet consumption during the perinatal period programs offspring behavior. Physiol Behav. 2014 Jan 17; 123: 236-42.
  24. 24. Krakowiak P,Walker CK, Bremer AA, Baker AS, Ozonoff S, Hansen RL, et al. Maternal metabolic conditions and risk for autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Pediatrics 2012; 129: e1121-8.
  25. Lyall K, Munger KL, O'Reilly ÉJ, Santangelo SL, Ascherio A. Maternal dietary fat intake in association with autism spectrum disorders. Am J Epidemiol. 2013 Jul 15;178(2):209-20. doi: 10.1093/aje/kws433. Epub 2013 Jun 27. PubMed PMID: 23813699; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3988447.

< < Back to Article

Send Us an Email

Open Up the Discussion & Share Your Thoughts

Your answers won’t be published and will be used to help us improve our website.

Do you have an autistic child?

Have you been diagnosed with an autoimmune disease or do you think you might be at risk?

Did you learn how maternal health during pregnancy can affect fetal brain development and be involved in ASD in children?

Videos

Answers & Education

View Videos

Latest

News & Updates

Read Posts

Join Our Discussion Forum

Need more information? Join the discussion today!

What You Need to Know